American CIVIL RIGHTS  1954 – 1968


Goals:- End of racial segregation in the United States, especially the South.
Methods:- nonviolence, direct action, voter registration, boycott, civil resistance, civil disobedience, community education.
1964 Civil Rights Act
1965 Voting Rights Act
1968 Fair Housing Act

Civil Rights Movement
1. 1865-1895 African American civil rights struggle
2. 1896-1954
3. 1954-1968 American civil rtghts black and white struggle

Parties to the civil conflict of African-Americans

The African-American Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement encompasses major campaigns of civil resistance.
Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities.
Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that highlighted the inequalities faced by African Americans.
Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts
such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56) in Alabama;
“sit-ins” such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960)in North Carolina;
marches, such as the Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama;
and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the civil rights movement were passage of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964,
that banned discrimination based on “race, color, religion, or national origin” in employment practices and public accommodations;
the Voting Rights Act of 1965,
that restored and protected voting rights;
The Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965,
that dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional European groups;
and the Fair Housing Act of 1968,
that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.
African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and across the country young people were inspired to take action.
A wave of inner city riots in black communities from 1964 through 1970 undercut support from the white community.
The growth of Black Power movements,through the late 60’s and 70’s challenged the established black leadership for its nonviolence, and instead demanded political and economic self-sufficiency.
While most popular representations of the movement are centered on the leadership and philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr., many scholars note that the movement was far too diverse to be credited to one person, organization, or strategy. Sociologist Doug McAdam has stated that, “in King’s case, it would be inaccurate to say that he was the leader of the modern civil rights movement…but more importantly, there was no singular civil rights movement. The movement was, in fact, a coalition of thousands of local efforts nationwide, spanning several decades, hundreds of discrete groups, and all manner of strategies and tactics-legal, illegal, institutional, non-institutional, violent, non-violent. Without discounting King’s importance, it would be sheer fiction to call him the leader of what was fundamentally an amorphous, fluid, dispersed movement.”
March on Washington, 1963.

The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom at the National Mall.
Civil Rights Groups March on Washington, leaders marching from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial.
Civil Rights marchers at the Lincoln Memorial.
A. Philip Randolph had planned a march on Washington, D.C. in 1941 to support demands for elimination of employment discrimination in defense industries;
he called off the march when the Roosevelt administration met the demand by issuing Executive Order 8802 barring racial discrimination and creating an agency to oversee compliance with the order.

Randolph and Bayard Rustin were the chief planners of the second march, which they proposed in 1962. In 1963, the Kennedy administration initially opposed the march out of concern it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. However, Randolph and King were firm that the march would proceed. With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. Concerned about the turnout, President Kennedy enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and the UAW union to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause. The march was held on August 28, 1963. Unlike the planned 1941 march, for which Randolph included only black-led organizations in the planning, the 1963 march was a collaborative effort of all of the major civil rights organizations, the more progressive wing of the labor movement, and other liberal organizations.
The march had six official goals:

1 meaningful civil rights laws
2 a massive federal works program
3 full and fair employment
4 decent housing
5 the right to vote
6 adequate integrated education.
The march’s major focus was on passage of the civil rights law that the Kennedy administration had proposed after the upheavals in Birmingham.
Black history is no mystery in Boston. Here’s how we got here.
The first Africans arrived in Boston aboard the slave ship named “Desire.”
Puritans from Boston England had settled. Together,they fought British rulers for independence. Black Yankees built a church and a school back in the day that still stands on Beacon Hill.
Its a major Boston tourist attraction. Managed by the National Park Service, the Museum of African American History and associated properties are on the Boston Freedom Trail.