MAROONS

History

In September 1728, the British sent more troops to Jamaica, changing the balance of power with the Windward Maroons. That year, the British sent a new governor, Major-General Robert Hunter, to Jamaica, and under his rule the conflict with the Maroons escalated. Jeddo[who?] led a Maroon assault on the north east town of Port Antonio a year later, and when the British soldiers under Lieutenant Soaper tried to pursue them, the Maroons ambushed them. During the First Maroon War, the Maroons used guerrilla tactics to inflict greater losses on the colonial militias in terms of both manpower and expense. In 1730, Soaper led a large force against the Windward Maroons, but once again the Maroons ambushed the militia and slaughtered them. Of the 95 armed men accompanying Soaper, less than half survived. The next year, two additional regiments arrived in Jamaica to assist Hunter in fighting the Maroons.[3]

In 1732, Hunter sent three parties against the Windward Maroons, and they occupied Nanny Town when the Maroons withdrew further into the Blue Mountains. The occupation of Nanny Town was expensive, and Hunter eventually recalled the militia, allowing the Maroons to re-take their town without a fight. The next year, Hunter sent a party of British seamen against the Windward Maroons, but the Maroons crushed them in an ambush, inflicting significant losses.[4]

In 1734, the Windward Maroons inflicted further losses on the colonial forces with a number of incursions in Portland Parish and St George. Slaves continued to escape and desert the Black Shot support forces in large numbers. Hunter died and was succeeded as governor by John Ayscough, but he also had limited success against the Maroons. That year, the militia recaptured Nanny Town, killing some Maroons.[5][6]

Later that year, the Maroons defeated a party led by Captain Shettlewood, and a group of these escaped slaves attacked an estate in St George, including a fort and the barracks there.[7] The Windward Maroons removed westwards to the John Crow Mountains at a place called Cattawoods or Cattawood Springs, and continued their resistance. Colonial Jamaica was counting the cost of the continuing conflict. White persons were migrating from Jamaica to North America, and by the end of 1734, the island’s white population had fallen to about 2,000. Sugar exports had fallen, and the island went through periods of martial law.[8]

In 1735, a party of over 100 Leeward Maroon warriors boldly attacked a military barracks in western Jamaica, captured some soldiers, took them back to their Maroon settlements, and executed them. Ayscough died in office, and John Gregory became the new governor, and he immediately had to tackle the problem of Maroon attacks. In retaliation for the militia’s occupation of Nanny Town, Windward Maroon warriors launched assaults on Titchfield Fort in Port Antonio, and even attacked soldiers while they were at dinner in Bagnall’s Thicket in Saint Mary Parish, Jamaica.[8]

In 1736, Maroons on both sides of the island launched a number of incursions into planter territory.[9] In 1737, there were more Maroon attacks on estates in coastal areas.[10] Gregory began to consider offering peace terms to the Maroons, because the British forces were unable to defeat them, while he authorised the construction of barracks at Manchioneal, Jamaica in Portland, Norman’s Valley in Saint James Parish, Jamaica, and at Bagnell’s Thicket. However, the building of barracks was expensive, and some planters refused to take part in funding it, claiming the Maroons never troubled them.[8]

Eventually, the arrival of Edward Trelawny resulted in peace becoming a real possibility after a decade of fighting.
The peace treaties

In 1739–40, the British government in Jamaica recognized that it could not defeat the Maroons, so Trelawny offered them peace treaties instead.[11]

At first, the treaties only recognised Cudjoe’s Town (Trelawny Town) and Crawford’s Town. But after the destruction of Crawford’s Town in the 1750s, the Maroons were located in five main towns: Accompong, Trelawny Town, Moore Town (formerly known as New Nanny Town), Scott’s Hall (Jamaica) and Charles Town, Jamaica, living under their own rulers and a British supervisor known as a superintendent.[11][12]

In exchange, they were asked to agree not to harbour new runaway slaves, but rather to help catch them. This last clause in the treaty caused a split between the Maroons and the rest of the black population. Another provision of the agreement was that the Maroons would serve to protect the island from invaders.[13]

In 1739, the colonial militia signed the first treaty with the Leeward Maroon leader, Cudjoe, who for years fought to maintain his people’s independence. He felt that the only hope for the future was an honorable peace with the enemy. A year later, the even more rebellious Windward Maroons of Nanny Town, led by Queen Nanny and Quao, also agreed to sign a treaty under pressure from both white Jamaicans and the Leeward Maroons.[14]

Discontent with the treaty and land encroachment from planters later led to the Second Maroon War.[15]

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